Activated Carbon Filters

Filtration Theory: For thousands of years filtration has been used to reduce the level of dirt, rust, suspended matter and other impurities from water. This is achieved by passing the dirty input water (influent) through a filter media. As ...

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Activated Sludge Process

Activated sludge process is a process for treating sewage and waste water commonly referred as effluent using bacteria (to degrade the biodegradable organics) and air (Oxygen for respiration). Activated sludge refers to a mixture of mi...

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Advanced Oxidation Processes

Advanced oxidation processes (abbreviation: AOPs), in a broad sense, refers to a set of chemical treatment procedures designed to remove organic (and sometimes inorganic) materials in water and waste water by oxidation through reactions wit...

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Advantages of Nanofiltration

There are many advantages of nanofiltration. Here’s a brief rundown of them. Nanofiltration is a relatively recent membrane process used most often with low total dissolved solids water such as surface water and fresh groundwater, wit...

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Aerobic Treatment Package

Aerobic Treatment Packages for Untreated Water Definitions: Wastewater : water polluted by a mixture of all sorts of inorganic (sand, clay, salts) and organic (proteins, sugars, oils and fats) components;Some of them appear in dissolved fo...

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Anaerobic System

Anaerobic treatment differs from conventional aerobic treatment in that no aeration is applied. The absence of oxygen leads to controlled anaerobic conversions of organic pollutants to carbondioxide and methane, the latter of which can be u...

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API Separators

API Oil-Water Separator Description of the Design and Operation : The API oil-water separator is a gravity separation device designed by using Stokes Law to define the rise velocity of oil droplets based on their density and size. The desi...

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Arsenic Removal System

Arsenic in Water: Arsenic is found in the environment as oxides, with two different oxidation states: trivalent arsenic oxide, As4O6, and pentavalent arsenic oxide, As4O10. Both oxides are acidic, when hydrolyzed they form oxo-acidic compou...

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Biological Treatment Systems

INTRODUCTION TO WATER PURIFICATION: Water is the most important natural gift for human beings and aquatic life. Due to continuous technological growth and industrialization, water has been fully polluted. This is categorized as water pollut...

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Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis System

INTRODUCTION: BRACKISH WATER REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM Definitions: Reverse osmosis (RO): is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pa...

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