Why do a Membrane Autopsy? The word autopsy derives from the Greek word “autopsia” which means “to see with one’s own eyes.” Autopsies can identify specific foulants and scalants on the membrane surface, and they can determine the presence of chemical or mechanical damage that has occurred during operation. The data and conclusions from an
An 8-MGD water reclamation system in Northern California was experiencing membrane fouling that was increasing the required feed pressure to produce water. A membrane autopsy showed that the fouling was caused by silica scale. The system consisted of three trains, each designed to produce 1850 gpm of permeate at a feed pressure of 145 psi.
The Cincinnati Zoo uses an ultrafiltration system (UF) to treat storm water. The reclaimed water is collected from fourteen acres of the park, including parking lots, animal exhibit yards, rooftop drains and walking-path storm drains. These combined sources run through a straining basin to a 300,000 gallon retention tank system. From there, the water is
Conserving water has long been a major concern in California. This situation has forced the state to implement emergency water-conservation measures as it struggles to cope with an ongoing drought that has depleted reservoirs and left farms parched. The Orange County Water District (OCWD) has focused on increasing water reuse efforts by building one of
The word “alkalinity” is probably one of the most commonly used in our industry. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF) plant operators have to measure the alkalinity in the feed to their membrane plant, as well as in the permeate and finished water. We all know that high alkalinity in the feed water can cause