Over the last few decades, advancements in technology and engineering design have allowed for
the construction of reverse osmosis (RO) plants with increased production capacities that could
operate at reasonable energy costs. Yet the portion of the operating cost related to consumable
scale inhibition chemicals has not changed dramatically due to the disregard by the water treatment
community for emerging scale inhibition technologies. The result has been the consumption of
enormous quantities of sulfuric acid unnecessarily increasing pretreatment, post-treatment and
brine disposal costs.